Does precipitation keep pace with temperature in the marginal double-cropping area of northern China?

Northern China is the major grain-production region in the country. To adapt to climate change and ensure food security with a fixed area of arable land, utilizing a multiple cropping frequency each year is regarded as an efficient method of …


A technology and analytics platform for improving variety selection.

A reduced‐tillering trait shows small but important yield gains in dryland wheat production

Reducing the number of tillers per plant using a tiller inhibition (tin ) gene has been considered as an important trait for wheat production in dryland environments. We used a spatial analysis approach with a daily time‐step coupled radiation and …

Designing crops for adaptation to the drought and high‐temperature risks anticipated in future climates

Climate risks pervade agriculture and generate major consequences on crop production. We do not know what the next season will be like, let alone the season 30 years hence. Yet farmers need to decide on genotype and management (G×M) combinations in …

Enabling breeding of spring wheat for optimisation of flowering time for current and future climates by linking genetic maps to simulation model parameters

In Australian wheat production, optimizing wheat phenology is essential to reach yield potential and to avoid within‐season stress at critical periods, especially around flowering. Identifying loci that determine heading date of wheat cultivars and …

From QTLs to Adaptation Landscapes: Using Genotype-To-Phenotype Models to Characterize G×E Over Time

Genotype by environment interaction (G×E) for the target trait, e.g. yield, is an emerging property of agricultural systems and results from the interplay between a hierarchy of secondary traits involving the capture and allocation of environmental …

Combining Crop Growth Modeling and Statistical Genetic Modeling to Evaluate Phenotyping Strategies

Genomic prediction of complex traits, say yield, benefits from including information on correlated component traits. Statistical criteria to decide which yield components to consider in the prediction model include the heritability of the component …

A generic approach to modelling, allocation and redistribution of biomass to and from plant organs

Accurate prediction of the allocation and redistribution of crop biomass is essential for simulating the impact of crop traits and management approaches on field-scale outcomes. The Agricultural Production system Simulator (APSIM) Plant Modelling …

Effects of climate change on the extension of the potential double cropping region and crop water requirements in Northern China

Multiple cropping systems have been widely used in China as smart strategies to address climate change to ensure that increasing food demand is met. In the context of climate warming, the climate-based boundaries of multiple cropping systems are …

Improving process-based crop models to better capture genotype×environment×management interactions

In spite of the increasing expectation for process-based crop modelling to capture genotype (G) by environment (E) by management (M) interactions to support breeding selections, it remains a challenge to use current crop models to accurately predict …

Modelling impact of early vigour on wheat yield in dryland regions

Early vigour, or faster early leaf area development, has been considered an important trait for rainfed wheat in dryland regions such as Australia. However, early vigour is a genetically complex trait, and results from field experiments have been …

Optimising Canola Phenology

Optimising Canola Phenology for Australian Target Production Environments

Genetic diversity toolkit

A genetic diversity toolkit to maximise harvest index by controlling the duration of developmental phase

National Phenology Initiative

A nationally validated model of wheat and barley flowering time that can be parameterised for new cultivars using molecular markers, genomic data and/or controlled environment phenotypic data.

APSIM Next Generation: Overcoming challenges in modernising a farming systems model

From 1990, the Agricultural Production Systems sIMulator (APSIM) has grown from a field-focused farming systems framework used by a small number of people, into a large collection of models used by thousands of modellers internationally. The software …

Identification of Earliness Per Se Flowering Time Locus in Spring Wheat through a Genome-Wide Association Study

Identification of earliness per se (Eps) flowering time loci in spring wheat are troublesome due to confounding effects of vernalization and photoperiod responses. The Wheat Association Mapping Initiative panel of 287 elite lines was assessed to …

Do maize models capture the impacts of heat and drought stresses on yield? Using algorithm ensembles to identify successful approaches

Stresses from heat and drought are expected to increasingly suppress crop yields, but the degree to which current models can represent these effects is uncertain. Here we evaluate the algorithms that determine impacts of heat and drought stress on …

Quantitative evaluation of influence of PROSTRATE GROWTH 1 gene on rice canopy structure based on three-dimensional structure model

The discovery and separation of the PROSTRATE GROWTH 1 gene has significantly contributed to reveal the molecular mechanism of rice evolution and has aided the study of the molecular basis of rice plant architecture. However, the influence of the …

Simplification of leaf surfaces from scanned data: Effects of two algorithms on leaf morphology

New technologies, such as three-dimensional (3D) laser scanning and stereo imaging, have recently been adopted for quantifying plant structure. The datasets collected using such technologies offer realistic representations of the morphological …

Gene-based prediction of heading time to target real-time and future climate adaptation in wheat

Spring wheat production systems in Australia require fine-tuning of heading time in order to maximise the efficient use of resources (radiation, water, fertiliser) across the season, while minimising the risk of crop failure due to frost, heat and …

Predicting heading date and frost impact in wheat across Australia

Spring radiant frosts occurring when wheat is in reproductive developmental stages can result in catastrophic yield lost for producers. In wheat, heading time is the main determinant to minimize frost risks and to adapt new frost-tolerant cultivars …

Landscape frost

Spatial temperature measurement and mapping tools to assist growers, advisors and extension specialists manage frost risk at a farm scale

Low rainfall

Climate extremes in the low rainfall region of the wheat belt


Improving APSIM to deliver solutions in GxExM and Phenomics

Trait assessment

Raising water productivity: Trait assessment for Australian rainfed wheat

Pheno-Copter: A Low-Altitude, Autonomous Remote-Sensing Robotic Helicopter for High-Throughput Field-Based Phenotyping

Plant breeding trials are extensive (100s to 1000s of plots) and are difficult and expensive to monitor by conventional means, especially where measurements are time-sensitive. For example, in a land-based measure of canopy temperature (hand-held …

Predicting heading time of Australian wheat using effects of VRN1 and Ppd-D1

Flowering time is a main determinant of wheat adaptation to diverse environments and is influenced by three groups of genes, earliness per se (EPS), VRN and PPD. The gene-based models, used known genes to predict wheat phenotype, would be robust for …

Using gene-based information to adapt wheat flowering time to avoid heat, frost and drought stresses in current and future climates

Varying the timing of reproductive stages of growth relative to climatic stresses is a useful adaptation to maintain yields. In future climates, the expectation that heat, frost and drought stresses may change in their timing means requires that …

Quantification of the effects of VRN1 and Ppd-D1 to predict spring wheat (Triticum aestivum) heading time across diverse environments

Heading time is a major determinant of the adaptation of wheat to different environments, and is critical in minimizing risks of frost, heat, and drought on reproductive development. Given that major developmental genes are known in wheat, a …

Frost situation

Frost situation analysis in Australia

Association genetics for earliness components and QTL-based ecophysiological predictions of heading date provide tools to optimize heading date through breeding

Maize model

Functional-structural maize model based on the source-sink limited growth of kernel

National adaptation

National adaptation Assessment: Adaptation Value in Wheat & Grazing farm systems

Root Nitrogen

Quantification of nitrogen absorption mechanism of maize using three-dimensional root-soil model

Scots Pine

Modelling three-dimensional growth of Natural Mongolian Scots pine forest and its application to estimate carbon sequestration potential

Wheat flowering

Genetics and physiology of wheat development to flowering: tools to breed for improved adaptation and yield potential

Assessment of the influence of global dimming on the photosynthetic production of rice based on three-dimensional modeling

Observations indicate that global radiation reaching the Earth’s surface has gradually decreased over the past several decades (i.e., the “global dimming” phenomenon), while the fraction of diffuse radiation in global radiation has increased. It has …

Aerial Imaging

Transformational Biology Aerial Imaging Project - scoping field phenotyping 'stick'

National Variety Trial

Adding value to GRDC's National Variety Trial network

Assessment of the effects of leaf angle combinations on potential photosynthesis capacity of rice with 3-D models using high performance computing

Improving plant structure is pivotal for increasing the potential yield of crops. The aim of this paper was to evaluate the influence of leaf angle and leaf area index (LAI) on light interception efficiency and capacity of biomass production of rice …

Three-dimensional digitization in situ of rice canopies and virtual stratified-clipping method.

Objective: The aim of this paper was to explore a technology which can accurately reflect the three-dimensional (3D) canopy architecture of rice plants. Method: The 3D digitizing technology was used to measure the rice plant structure in situ at the …

Breeding platform

A Molecular Breeding Platform

Climate ready cereals

A national research program for climate ready cereals

Wheat adaptation

Adapting wheat to future warm and dry climates: improved simulation of flowering and tillering

Canopy Architecture Quantification and Spatial Direct Light Interception Modeling of Hybrid Rice

Rice is one of the most important crops in the world, and hybrid rice is planted broadly in China which accounts for half of China’s rice acreage. Quantification of rice spatial architecture is useful for breeding high yield cultivars, and studies on …

Light model

Quantified spatial architecture and digital design based on light model for high-yielding crop

Digital design

Research on growth model and digital design technique for agricultural and forest plant